Carnism Research Database

Our carnism research database houses carnism-related books, articles, and in-progress research. The database exists as a resource for people who are currently conducting carnism-related research, those who are interested in identifying gaps in the literature to determine future research needs, and those seeking academic institutions or organizations that are open to carnism-related research. It’s also a great resource for anyone interested in learning more about carnism from an academic perspective.

If you know of a study that you think should be included in our database, or if you have any feedback on how we may improve this resource, please send an email to [email protected].

Author Title Publisher Medium Pages Date
Adams, Carol J.The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical TheoryBloomsbury AcademicBookBook15 Mar. 2010
Adams, Carol J.Why Feminist Vegan Now?Feminism & PsychologyVolume 20.4Pages 302-3171 Aug. 2010
Allen Fox, Michael Deep Vegetarianism (America in Transition)Temple University PressBookBook1999
Allen, Karen; Blascovich, Jim; Mendes, Wendy B.Cardiovascular Reactivity and the Presence of Pets, Friends, and Spouses: The Truth About Cats and DogsPsychosomatic MedicineVolume 64.5Pages 727-39Sept.-Oct. 2002
Allen, M; Wilson, M; Dunne, M.Values and Beliefs of Vegetarians and OmnivoresJournal of Social PsychologyVolume 140.4Pages 405-4221 Aug. 2000
Allport, Gordon W.The Nature of PrejudicePerseus BookBookBook1979
Altemeyer, B.Right-Wing AuthoritarianismUniversity of Manitoba PressEBookEBook1981
Amato, P. R.; Partridge, S. A.The New Vegetarians: Promoting Health and Protecting LifeSpringerBookBook1989
American Psychological AssociationGuidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of AnimalsAPABookBook1985
Amiot, Catherine E.; Bastian, BrockToward a Psychology of Human–Animal RelationsPsychological BulletinVolume 141.1Pages 1-42Jan. 2015
Anygal, AndrasDisgust and Related AversionsJournal of Abnormal and Social PsychologyVolume 36.3Pages 393-4121 July 1941
Aquino, K.; Reed, A.The self-importance of moral identityJournal of Personality and Social PsychologyVolume 83.6Pages 1423-14402002
Arluke, Arnold; Hafferty, FredericFrom Apprehension to Fascination with “Dog Lab”Journal of Contemporary EthnographyVolume 25.2Pages 201-225July 1996
Arluke, Arnold; Sanders, Clinton R. Regarding Animals (Animals, Culture and Society)Temple UniversityBookBook1997
Aronson, ElliotBack to the Future: Retrospective Review of Leon Festinger's "A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance"The American Journal of PsychologyVolume 110.1Pages 127-137Spring 1997
Ascione, Frank R.Animal Abuse and Youth ViolenceJuvenile Justice BulletinBookBook1 Sept. 2001
Ascione, Frank R.Emerging Research on Animal Abuse as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner ViolenceCivic Research InstituteBookPages 3-172007
Ascione, Frank R.; Arkow, Phil Child Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Animal AbusePurdue University PressBookBook1 Apr. 1999
Ascione, Frank R.; Friedrich, William N.; Heath, JohnCruelty to Animals in Normative, Sexually Abused, and Outpatient Psychiatric Samples of 6- to 12-Year-Old Children: Relations to Maltreatment and Exposure to Domestic ViolenceAnthrozoosVolume 16.3Pages 194-2121 Jan. 2003
Ascione, Frank R.; Shapiro, Kenneth People and Animals, Kindness and Cruelty: Research Directions and Policy ImplicationsJournal of Social IssuesVolume 65.3Pages 569-58723 July 2009
Baldry, Anna C.Animal Abuse and Exposure to Interparental Violence in Italian YouthJournal of Interpersonal ViolenceVolume 18.3Pages 258-281Mar. 2003
Bandura, A.Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of InhumanitiesPersonality and Social Psychology ReviewVolume 3.3Pages 258-2811999
Bandura, A.Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral AgencyJournal of Moral EducationVolume 31.2Pages 101-1192002
Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to Measure Attitudes Toward Meat And Vegetables in Vegetarians and Meat-EatersThe Psychological RecordVolume 60.2Pages 287-3062010
Barthes, RolandToward a Psychosociology of Contemporary Food ConsumptionJohn Hopkins University PressBookPages 23-301979
Bastian, BrockThe Meat Paradox: How We Can Love Some Animals and Eat OthersThe ConversationPrintNewspaper Article23 Mar. 2011
Bastian, BrockWhen Closing the Human-Animal Divide Expands Moral Concern: The Importance of FramingSocial Psychological and Personality ScienceVolume 3.4Pages 421-4291 Nov. 2012
Bastian, Brock; Loughnan, Steve; Haslam, Nick; Radke, Helena R. M. Don’t Mind Meat? The Denial of Mind to Animals Used for Human ConsumptionPersonality and Social Psychology BulletinVolume 38.2Pages 247-2561 Feb. 2012
Beatson, Ruth; Loughnan, Stephen; Halloran, Michael Attitudes Toward Animals: The Effect of Priming Thoughts of Human-Animal Similarities and Mortality Salience on the Evaluation of Companion AnimalsSociety & AnimalsVolume 17.1Pages 72-892009
Bekoff, MarcAnimal Passions and Beastly Virtues: Cognitive Ethology as the Unifying Science for Understanding the Subjective, Emotional, Empathic, and Moral Lives of AnimalsHuman Ecology ReviewVolume 13.1Pages 39-592006
Belasco, WarrenFood, Morality, and Social ReformRoutledgeBookPages 185-1991997
Bell, A. Chris; Stewart, Alan M.; Radford, Anthony J.; Cairney, Peter T.A Method for Describing Food Beliefs Which May Predict Personal Food ChoiceSociety for Nutrition Education and BehaviorVolume 13.1Pages 22-26Mar. 1981
Berndsen M., van der Pligt J.Ambivalence Towards MeatAppetiteVolume 42.1Pages 71-781 Feb. 2004
Biermann-Ratjen, Eva-Maria Incongruence and PsychopathologySAGE Publications IncBookPages 119-1301998
Bilewicz, Michal; Imhoff, Roland; Drogosz, MarekThe Humanity of What We Eat: Conceptions of Human Uniqueness Among Vegetarians and OmnivoresEuropean Journal of Social PsychologyVolume 41.2Pages 201-2095 Aug. 2010
Blidaru, Ligia; Opre, Adrian The Moralization of Eating Behavior. Gendered Cognitive and Behavioral StrategiesProcedia - Social and Behavioural ScienceVolume 187Pages 547-55213 May 2015
Boat, Barbara W. The Relationship between Violence to Children and Violence to Animals: An Ignored Link?Journal of Interpersonal ViolenceVolume 10.2 Pages 229-2351 June 1995
Boer, Joop de; Boersema, Jan J.; Aiking, HarryConsumers' Motivational Associations Favoring Free-Range Meat or Less MeatEcological EconomicsVolume 86.3Pages 850-86015 Jan. 2009
Booth, David The Psychology of NutritionTaylor & FrancisBookBook1994
Bratanova, B.; Loughnan, S.; Bastian B.The Effect of Categorization as Food on the Perceived Moral Standing of AnimalsAppetiteVolume 57.1Pages 193-1961 Aug. 2011
Bratanova, B.; Loughnan, S.; Gatersleben, B.The Moral Circle as a Common Motivational Cause of Cross-Situational Pro-EnvironmentalismEuropean Journal of Social PsychologyVolume 42.5Pages 539-5452 Mar. 2012
Brewer, Marilynn B.; Brown, Rupert J.Intergroup RelationsThe Handbook of Social PsychologyVolumes 1 and 2, 4th ed.Pages 554-5941998
Brown, LesCruelty to Animals: The Moral DebtInternational Specialized Book Service IncBookBookDec. 1988
Burghardt, Gordon M.Ethics and Animal Consciousness: How Rubber the Ethical Ruler?Journal of Social IssuesVolume 65.3Pages 499-52123 July 2009
Christie, Daniel J.; Pim, Joám Evans Nonkilling PsychologyCenter for Global NonkillingBookBook2009
Clarke, Paul A. B. Political Theory and Animal RightsTaylor & FrancisBookBookMay 1990
Clement, Grace“Pets or Meat”? Ethics and Domestic AnimalsJournal of Animal EthicsVolume 1.1Pages 46-57Spring 2011
Coleman, G.J; Hemsworth, P.H; Hay, M. Predicting Stockperson Behaviour Towards Pigs from Attitudinal and Job-Related Variables and EmpathyApplied Animal Behaviour ScienceVolume 58.1-2Pages 63-751 June 1998
Coleman, G.J.; Hemsworth, P.H; Boyce, J.; Dowling, S.The Relationship between Beliefs, Attitudes and Observed Behaviours of Abattoir Personnel in the Pig IndustryApplied Animal Behaviour ScienceVolume 82.3Pages 189-20015 July 2003
Comstock, Gary L. Pigs and Piety: A Theocentric Perspective on Food AnimalsBetween the SpeciesVolume 8.3Pages 121-1351993
Cooper, Charles; Wise, Thomas; Man, Lee Psychological and Cognitive Characteristics of VegetariansPsychosomaticsVolume 26.6Pages 521-52726 June 1985
Cooper, Joel M.Cognitive Dissonance: 50 Years of a Classic TheorySAGE Publications IncBookBook2007
Counihan, Carole M. Food Rules in the United States: Individualism, Control, and HierarchyAnthropological QuarterlyVolume 65.2Pages 55-662 Apr. 1992
Cuddy, A. J.; Fiske, S. T.; Glick, P.The BIAS Map: Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and StereotypesJournal of Personality and Social Psychology Volume 92.4Pages 631-6481 May 2007
Cudworth, ErikaKilling Animals: Sociology, Species Relations and Institutionalized ViolenceThe Sociological ReviewVolume 63.1Pages 1-1824 Feb. 2015
Cunningham, TessaYou Are What You Drink: A Feminist Critique of Milk and Its Consequences for the FemaleAnimals & SocietyWebWeb1 Mar. 2015
Davis, KarenThinking Like a Chicken: Farm Animals and The Feminine ConnectionDuke University PressBookPages 192-2121995
DeMello, MargoAnimals and Society: An Introduction to Human-Animal StudiesColumbia University PressBookBook2012
Descartes, Rene Abhandlung über die Methode, seine Vernunft gut zu gebrauchen und die Wahrheit in den Wissenschaften zu suchenEdition NationalBookBook1997
DeSoucey, Michaela FoodOxford University PressWebWeb2013
Dhont, Kristof; Hodson, GordonWhy Do Right-Wing Adherents Engage in More Animal Exploitation and Meat Consumption?Personality and Individual DifferencesVolume 64Pages 12-172014
Dietz, Thomas; Stirling Frisch, Ann; Kalof, Linda; Stern, Paul C.; Guagnano, Gregory A.Values and Vegetarianism: An Exploratory AnalysisRural SociologyVolume 60.3Pages 533-5423 Feb. 2010
Ditto, P.; Lopez, D.Motivated Skepticism: Use of Differential Decision Criteria for Preferred and Nonpreferred ConclusionsJournal of Personality and Social PsychologyVolume 63.4Pages 568-5841992
Douglas, Mary Implicit Meanings: Essays in AnthropologyRoutledgeBookBook1975
Draycott, Simon; Dabbs, AlanCognitive Dissonance 1: An Overview of the Literature and Its Integration into Theory and Practice in Clinical PsychologyBritish Journal of Clinical PsychologyVolume 37.3Pages 341-3531998
Duncan, Ian J. H. The Changing Concept of Animal SentienceApplied Animal Behaviour ScienceVolume 100.1-2Pages 11-192006
Fallon, A.; Rozin, P.The Psychological Bases of Food Rejections by HumansEcology of Food and NutritionVolume 13.1Pages 15-261983
Farb, PeterConsuming Passions: The Anthropology of EatingHoughton MifflinBookBook2 Sept. 1980
Fawcett, AnneEuthanasia and Morally Justifiable Killing in a Veterinary Clinical Context (in "Animal Death") Sydney University PressBookBook2013
Fessler, D. M. T.; Arguello, A. P.; Mekdara, J. M.; Macias, R.Disgust Sensitivity and Meat Consumption: A Test of an Emotivist Account of Moral VegetarianismAppetiteVolume 41Pages 31-412003
Fessler, Daniel M.; Navarrete, Carlos DavidMeat is Good to Taboo: Dietary Proscriptions as a Product of the Interaction of Psychological Mechanisms and Social ProcessesJournal of Cognition and CultureVolume 3.1Pages 1-402003
Festinger, LeonA Theory of Cognitive DissonanceStanford University PressBookBook1978
Fiddes, NickMeat: A Natural SymbolRoutledgeBookBook1 Oct. 1992
Fischler, ClaudeFood, Self and IdentitySocial Science InformationVolume 27.2 Pages 275-2921988
Fischler, ClaudeFood Habits, Social Change and the Nature/Culture DilemmaSocial Science InformationVolume 19.6Pages 937-9531980
Fox, N.; Ward, K.Health, Ethics and Environment: A Qualitative Study of Vegetarian MotivationsAppetiteVolume 50.2-3Pages 422-4292008
Freeman, Carrie Packwood; Perez, Oana LeventiPardon Your Turkey and Eat Him Too: Antagonism Over Meat-Eating in the Discourse of the Presidential Thanksgiving Turkey PardoningRoutledgeBookPages 103-1202012
Friedman, StanleyOn VegetarianismJournal of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationVolume 23.2Pages 396-406 1975
Friedmann, Erika; Son, Heesook; Tsai, Chia-Chun The Animal/Human Bond: Health and Wellness (in Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy (Third Edition))Academic PressWebPages 85-1072010
Furst, Tanis; Conners, Margaret; Bisogne, Carole A.; Sobal, Jeffrey; Falk, Laura WinterFood Choice: A Conceptual Model of the ProcessAppetiteVolume 26.3Pages 247–2661996
García-Jiméneza, Carlos I.; Mishra, Ashok Kumar Role of Ethnicity in Consumption of Meat ProductsApplied Economics LettersVolume 18.7Pages 665-6692011
GfK Social ResearchPublic Attitudes to Food IssuesFood Standards AgencyReportReport2009
Gibert, Martin; Desaulniers, Élise CarnismSpringer VerlagBookBook2013
Graça, João; Oliveira, Abílio; Calheiros, Maria Manuela Meat, Beyond the Plate. Data-Driven Hypotheses for Understanding Consumer Willingness to Adopt a More Plant-Based DietAppetiteVolume 90Pages 80-902015
Graçaa, João; Calheirosa, Maria Manuela; Oliveirab, Abílio Attached to Meat? (Un)Willingness and Intentions to Adopt a More Plant-Based DietAppetiteVolume 95Pages 113–1252015
Gray, H.; Gray, K.; Wegner, D.Dimensions of Mind PerceptionScienceVolume 315.5812Page 6192007
Gray, Kurt; Knobe, Joshua; Sheskin, Mark; Bloom, Paul; Barrett, Lisa FeldmanMore Than a Body: Mind Perception and the Nature of ObjectificationJournal of Personality and Social PsychologyVolume 101.6Pages 1207-12202011
Green, CheCognitive Dissonance: Why the Truth Sets Nobody FreeFaunalyticsWebWeb15 Feb. 2012
Greene, Joshua D.; Sommerville, Brian; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Darley, John M.; Cohen, Jonathan D.An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral JudgmentScienceVolume 293.5537Pages 2105-21082001
Grier, Katherine C.Pets in America: A HistoryThe University of North Carolina PressBookBook27 Feb. 2006
Grossman, Dave On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and SocietyBack Bay BooksBookBook1 Nov. 1996
Guthar, Julia; Buschka, S.; Sebastian, M.Violence on AnimalsJ.B. MetzlerBookPages 75- 832013
Haidt, JonathanThe Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral JudgmentPsychological ReviewVolume 108.4Pages 814-8342001
Haidt, Jonathan; Rozin, Paul; McCauley, C.; Imada, S.Body, Psyche and Culture: The Relationship between Disgust and MoralityPsychology and Developing SocietiesVolume 9.1 Pages 107-1311997
Hamilton, M.Eating Death: Vegetarians, Meat and ViolenceFood, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary ResearchVolume 9.2Pages 155-1771 May 2006
Hamilton, Malcolm Wholefoods and Healthfoods: Beliefs and AttitudesAppetiteVolume 20.3Pages 223-2281993
Hamilton, Malcolm Disgust Reactions to Meat Among Ethically and Health Motivated VegetariansEcology of Food and NutritionVolume 45.2Pages 125-15821 Aug. 2006
Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Mills, Judson Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social PsychologyAmerican Psychological AssociationBookBook1999
Haslam, N.; Loughnan, S.; Holland, E.The Psychology of HumannessNebraska Symposium on MotivationVolume 60Pages 25-512013
Haslam, NickDehumanization: An Integrative ReviewPersonality and Social Psychology ReviewVolume 10.3Pages 252-2642006
Haslam, Nick; Bain, Paul; Douge, Lauren; Lee, Max; Bastian, Brock More Human Than You: Attributing Humanness to Self and OthersJournal of Personality and Social PsychologyVolume 89.6Pages 937-9502005
Haslam, Nick; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Loughnan, Steve; Shi, Junqi; Suitner, CaterinaSubhuman, Inhuman, and Superhuman: Contrasting Humans with Nonhumans in Three CulturesSocial CognitionVolume 26.2Pages 248-2582008
Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Stephen; Reynolds, Catherine; Wilson, SamuelDehumanization: A New PerspectiveSocial and Personality Psychology CompassVolume 1.1Pages 409-4222007
Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Stephen; Sun, PamelaBeastly: What Makes Animal Metaphors Offensive?Journal of Language and Social PsychologyVolume 30.3 Pages 311-32515 June 2011
Heflick, Nathan A.; Goldenberg, Jamie L.Objectifying Sarah Palin: Evidence that Objectification Causes Women to be Perceived as Less Competent and Less Fully HumanJournal of Experimental Social PsychologyVolume 45.3Pages 598-6012009
Heflick, Nathan A.; Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Coopera, Douglas P.; Puviab, ElisaFrom Women to Objects: Appearance Focus, Target Gender, and Perceptions of Warmth, Morality and CompetenceJournal of Experimental Social PsychologyVolume 47.3Pages 572-581May 2011
Hemsworth, Paul H.; Barnett, J.L.; Coleman, Grahame; Hansen, C.A Study of the Relationship between the Attitudinal and Behavioural Profiles of Stockpersons and the Level of Fear of Humans and Reproductive Performance of Commercial PigsApplied Animal Behaviour ScienceVolume 23.4Pages 301-3141 June 1989
Herman, Judith L.The Aftermath of Violence – From Domestic Abuse to Political TerrorBasic BooksBookBook1997
Herzog, HalSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We Eat: Why It's So Hard to Think Straight About AnimalsHarper PerennialBook Book2010
Herzog, HalGender, Sex Role Orientation, and Attitudes Toward AnimalsAnthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People and AnimalsVolume 4.3Pages 184-191Dec. 1990
Herzog, HalHaving Your Dog and Eating It Too?Psychology TodayWebWeb1 June 2011
Herzog, Harold A.Gender Differences in Human–Animal Interactions: A ReviewAnthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People and AnimalsVolume 20.1Pages 7-212007
Hodson, GordonThe Meat Paradox: Loving but Exploiting AnimalsPsychology TodayWebWeb3 Mar. 2014
Hoeka, Annet C.; van Boekelb, Martinus A.J.S.; Voordouwa, Jantine; Luning, PieternelIdentification of New Food Alternatives: How Do Consumers Categorize Meat and Meat Substitutes?Food, Quality and PreferencesVolume 22.4Pages 371-383June 2011
Ingram, G. P. D.; Piazza, J. R.; Bering, J. M.The Adaptive Problem of Absent Third-PartyCambridge Scholars PublishingBookPages 205-2292009
Irvine, BethanVegetarian Masculinities: How Discourses of Normative Masculinity Are Challenged and (Re)Produced through Food ConsumptionAnthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People and AnimalsVolume 1.2Pages 33- 632015
Irvine, LeslieAnimals and Sociology Sociology CompassVolume 2.6Pages 1954-19712008
Irvine, LeslieSociology and Anthrozoology: Symbolic Interactionist ContributionsAnthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People and AnimalsVolume 25Pages 379-3932012
Jabs, Jennifer; Devine, Carol M.; Sobal, JefferyModel of the Process of Adopting Vegetarian Diets: Health Vegetarians and Ethical VegetariansJournal of Nutrition EducationVolume 30.4Pages 196-202July 1998
Johnson, Allan G.The Forest and the Trees: Sociology as Life, Practice, and PromiseTemple University PressBookBook1997
Jordan, A. H.; Monin, B.From Sucker to Saint: Moralization in Response to Self-ThreatPsychological ScienceVolume 19.8Pages 809-8152008
Jost, John T.; Banaji, Mahzarin R.The Role of Stereotyping in System-Justification and the Production of False ConsciousnessBritish Journal of Social PsychologyVolume 33.1Pages 1-271994
Joy, MelanieFrom Carnivore to Carnist: Liberating the Language of MeatSatyaVolume 8.2Pages 26-271 Sept. 2001
Joy, MelanieHumanistic Psychology and Animal Rights: Reconsidering the Boundaries of the Humanistic EthicJournal of Humanistic PsychologyVolume 45.1 Pages 106-1302005
Joy, MelaniePsychic Numbing and Meat Consumption: The Psychology of CarnismUniversity of Michigan (Dissertation)DissertationDissertation1 Jan. 2003
Joy, MelanieStrategic Action for Animals: A Handbook on Strategic Movement Building, Organizing, and Activism for Animal LiberationLantern BooksBookBook2008
Joy, MelanieToward a Non-Speciesist PsychoethicSociety & AnimalsVolume 10.4Pages 457-4582002
Kalof, Linda; Dietz, Thomas; Stern, Paul C.; Guagnano, Gregory A. Social Psychological and Structural Influences on Vegetarian BeliefsRural SociologyVolume 64.3Pages 500-5111999
Kellert, Stephen Robert; Felthouse, AlanChildhood Cruelty toward Animals among Criminals and NoncriminalsHuman RelationsVolume 38.12Pages 1113-11291985
Kelly, DanielThe Role of Psychology in the Study of CultureBehavioral and Brain SciencesVolume 29.4Pages 329-3832006
Kelly, SeanGeschlecht, Speciesism, and Animal Rights in Leopold von Sacher-MasochJournal for Critical Animal StudiesVolume 12.3Pages 27-462014
Kenyon, P. M.; Barker, M. E.Attitudes Towards Meat-Eating in Vegetarian and Nonvegetarian Teenage Girls in England — an Ethnographic ApproachAppetiteVolume 30Pages 185-1981998
Knight, Sarah; Vrij, Aldert; Cherryman, Julie; Nunkoosing, Karl Attitudes Towards Animal Use and Belief in Animal MindAttitudes Towards Animal Use and Belief in Animal MindVolume 17.1Pages 43-622004
Kowalski, Gary The Souls of AnimalsNew World LibraryBookBook1991
Kruse, Corwin R.Gender, Views of Nature, and Support for Animal RightsSociety & AnimalsVolume 7.3Pages 179-198Dec. 1998
Kubberd, Elin; Ueland, Øydis; Dingstad, Gunvor Irene; Risvik, Einer; Henjesand, Inge JanThe Effect of Animality in the Consumption Experience – A Potential for DisgustJournal of Food Products MarketingVolume 14.3Pages 103-124June 2008
Kubberødf, Elin; Ueland, Øydis; Tronstad, Åsne; Risvik, Einar Attitudes Towards Meat and Meat-Eating among Adolescents in Norway: A Qualitative StudyAppetiteVolume 38.1Pages 53-62Feb. 2002
Kuhn, D.The Skills of ArgumentsChild DevelopmentVolume 74.5Pages 1245-1260 1991
Kunda, ZivaThe Case for Motivated ReasoningPsychological BulletinVolume 108.3Pages 480-498Nov. 1990
Kwan, Virginia S. Y.; Gosling, Samuel D.; John, Oliver P. Anthropomorphism as a Special Case of Social Perception: A Cross–Species Social Relations Model Analysis of Humans and DogsSocial CognitionVolume 26.2Pages 129-1422008
Laham, S. M.Expanding the Moral Circle: Inclusion and Exclusion Mindsets and the Circle of Moral RegardJournal of Experimental Social PsychologyVolume 45.1Pages 250-2532009
Lake, Elise S.; Minjoo, OhChapter 79: The Sociology of Food and Eating (in "21st Century Sociology")21st Century SociologyWebWeb2007
Lea, E.; Worsley, A.Influences on Meat Consumption in AustraliaAppetiteVolume 36.2Pages 127-1362001
Lea, E.; Worsley, A.The Factors Associated with the Belief that Vegetarian Diets Provide Health BenefitsAsia Pacific Journal of Clinical NutritionVolume 12.3Pages 296-3032003
Lea, E.; Worsley, A.Ecology of food and NutritionPublic Health NutritionVolume 5.1Pages 37- 4515 June 2001
Lea, E.; Worsley, A.Are Information Sources Associated with Australian's Beliefs about the Necessity of Meat?Ecology of Food and NutritionVolume 41.5Pages 441-4611 Sept. 2009
Lemonick, Michael Why We Get DisgustedTimePrint24 May 2007
Lifton, Robert JayA Nuclear Age Ethos: Ten Psychological-Ethical PrinciplesJournal of Humanistic PsychologyVolume 25.4 Pages 39-401985
Lifton, Robert Jay The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of GenocideBasic BooksBookBook1986
Lifton, Robert Jay Beyond Psychic Numbing: A Call to AwarenessAmerican Journal of OrthopsychiatryVolume 52.4Pages 619-291982
Lifton, Robert Jay; Markusen, EricThe Genocidal Mentality: Nazi Holocaust and Nuclear ThreatBasic BooksBookBook1990
Lindeman, MarjaanaThe State of Mind of Vegetarians: Psychological Well-Being or Distress?Ecology of Food and NutritionVolume 41.1Pages 75-8617 Sept. 2010
Lindeman, Marjaana; Väänänen, M. Measurement of Ethical Food Choice MotivesAppetiteVolume 34.1Pages 55-592000
Liu, B. S.; Ditto, P. H.What Dilemma? Moral Evaluation Shapes Factual BeliefSocial Psychological & Personality ScienceVolume 4.3Pages 1-8?2013
Locatelli, Margarett Garrett; Holt, Robert Antinuclear Activism, Psychic Numbing, and Mental HealthInternational Journal of Mental HealthVolume 15.1-3Pages 143-1611986
Loughnan, S.; Haslam, N.; Bastian, B.The Role of Meat Consumption in the Denial of Moral Status and Mind to Meat AnimalsAppetiteVolume 55.1Pages 156-1592010
Loughnan, Steve; Bastian, Brock; Haslam, NickThe Psychology of Eating AnimalsCurrent Directions in Psychological ScienceVolume 23.2Pages 104-1081 Apr. 2014
Loughnan, Steve; Bratanova, Boyka; Puvia, ElisaThe Meat Paradox: How Are We Able to Love Animals and Love Eating Animals?In-Mind ItaliaVolume 1Pages 15-182011
Loughnan, Steve; Haslam, Nick; Murnane, Tess; Vaes, Jeroen; Reynolds, Catherine; Suitner, CaterinaObjectification Leads to Depersonalization: The Denial of Mind and Moral Concern to Objectified OthersEuropean Journal of Social PsychologyVolume 40Pages 709-7172010
Mannes, JeffKarnismus, in Lexikon der Mensch-Tier-BeziehungenTranscriptBookBookOct. 2015
Marcus, Erik Meat Market: Animals, Ethics, and MoneyBrio PressBookBook2005
Maslow, Abraham H. Motivation and PersonalityHarper & RowBookBook1954
Matheny, Gaverick Expected Utility, Contributory Causation, and VegetarianismJournal of Applied PhilosophyVolume 19.3 Pages 293–29712 Feb. 2003
Mathews, Steve; Herzog, Harold A.Personality and Attitudes toward the Treatment of AnimalsSociety & AnimalsVolume 5.2Pages 169-1751997
Mattes, Richard D. Learned Food Aversions: A Family StudyPhysiology and BehaviorVolume 50.3Pages 499-5041991
Maurer, Donna Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment?Temple University PressBookBook1 Apr. 2002
Mazar, N.; Amir, O.; Ariely, D.The Dishonesty of Honest People: A Theory of Self-Concept MaintenanceJournal of Marketing ResearchVolume 45Pages 633-6442008
McClellan, JoelSize Matters: Animal Size, Contributory Causation, and Ethical VegetarianismJournal of Animal EthicsVolume 3.1Pages 57-682013
Melson, Gail F. Psychology and the Study of Human-Animal RelationshipsSociety & AnimalsBookPages 347-3522002
Mercier, H.What Good is Moral Reasoning?Mind & SocietyVolume 10.2Pages 131-1482011
Mercier, H.; Sperber, D.Why do Humans Reason? Arguments for an Argumentative TheoryBehavioral and Brain SciencesVolume 34Pages 57-1112011
Merriman, BenGender Differences in Family and Peer Reaction to the Adoption of a Vegetarian DietFeminism & PsychologyVolume 20.3Pages 420-4272010
Midgley, Mary Animals and Why They MatterPenguinBookBook1983
Milgram, Stanley Obedience to Authority: An Experimental ViewHarper & RowBookBook1974
Minson, Julia A.; Monin, BenoîtDo-Gooder Derogation: Disparaging Morally Motivated Minorities to Defuse Anticipated ReproachSocial Psychological and Personality ScienceVolume 3.2 Pages 200-2072012
Nath, Jemál Gendered Fare? A Qualitative Investigation of Alternative Food and MasculinitiesJournal of SociologyPrint27 Jan. 2011
Nettle, DanielThe Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other AnimalsAmerican PsychologistVolume 61.6Pages 622-6311 Sept. 2016
Nickerson, R. S.Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomena in Many GuisesReview of General PsychologyVolume 2.2Pages 175-220 1998
Nilbert, David Allen Animal Rights/Human Rights: Entanglements of Oppression and LiberationRowman & LittlefieldBookBook2002
Nobis, NathanVegetarianism and Virtue: Does Consequentialism Demand Too Little?Social Theory & PracticeVolume 28.1Pages 135-1562002
Nussbaum, Martha C.ObjectificationPhilosophy and Public AffairsVolume 24.4 Pages 249-2911995
Nussbaum, Martha C.Sex and Social Justice Oxford University PressBookBook1999
Opotow, SusanAnimals and the Scope of JusticeJournal of Social IssuesVolume 49.1Pages 71-851993
Orellana, Ligia María; Sepúlveda, José Andrés; Denegri, Marianela Psychological Meaning of Eating Meat, Vegetarianism and Healthy Diet in University Students: A Natural Semantic Network StudyRevista Mexicana de Trastornos AlimentariosVolume 58.1Pages 15-222013
Patterson, CharlesEternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the HolocaustLantern BooksBookBook2002
Peggs, KayAnimals and Sociology Palgrave MacMillanBookBook14 Apr. 2012
Peggs, KayThe ‘Animal-Advocacy Agenda’: Exploring Sociology for Non-Human AnimalsThe Sociological ReviewVolume 61.3Pages 591-60621 Aug. 2013
Perkins, D. N.Postprimary Education has Little Impact on Informal Reasoning.Journal of Educational PsychologyVolume 77.5Pages 562-571Oct. 1985
Petrinovich, L.; O'Neill, P.; Jorgensen, M.An Empirical Study of Moral Intuitions: Toward an Evolutionary EthicsJournal of Personality and Social PsychologyVolume 64.3Pages 467-4781993
Pfeiler, T. M.; Wenzel, M.Psychologie: Von Mensch zu TierTranscriptin disziplinierte Tiere?: Perspektiven der Human-Animal Studies für die wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen by R. Spannring, K. Schachinger, G. Kompatscher Gufler, & A. Boucabeille (Eds.)2015
Piazza, Dr. JaredHow People Defend Eating MeatLancaster UniversityWebWeb15 May 2015
Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B.; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliane; Watkins, Hanne M.; Seigerman, MirraRationalizing Meat Consumption. The 4NsAppetiteVolume 91Pages 114-1284 Oct. 2014
Pilisuk, MarcCognitive Balance and Self-Relevant AttitudesJournal of Abnormal and Social PsychologyVolume 65.2Pages 95-1031962
Pilisuk, MarcThe Hidden Structure of Contemporary ViolenceJournal of Peace PsychologyVolume 4´.3Pages 197-2161998
Pilisuk, Marc; Joy, MelanieHumanistic Psychology and EcologySAGE Publications IncBookBook2000
Plous, ScottPsychological Mechanism in the Human Use of AnimalsJournal of Social IssuesVolume 49.1Pages 11-521993
Plous, ScottIs There Such Thing as Prejudice Toward Animals?McGraw-HillBookPages 509-5281993
Podberscek, Anthony L. Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South KoreaJournal of Social IssuesVolume 65.3Pages 615-6322003
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